It is stated as a percentage of the face value of the bond when the bond is issued and continues to be the same until it reaches maturity.

### What is Coupon Bond Formula?

Once fixed at the issue date, coupon rate of bond remain unchanged till the tenure of the bond and the holder of the bond gets the fixed value of interest at fixed predetermined time intervals. Step 1: In the first step, the amount required to be raised through bonds is decided by the company , then based on the target investors i. Step 2: In the second step, firstly amount of interest and frequency of payment is decided, and the total annual interest payment is calculated by multiplying the amount of interest with the frequency of payment.

Step 3: In the final step, the amount of interest paid yearly is divided by the face value of a bond in order to calculate the coupon rate. Company ABC issued a bond of Rs.

## Bond Pricing Formula

Following are the details of the issue:. Tata Capital Financial Services Ltd. Issued secured and unsecured NCDs in Sept Details of the issue are as following:.

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As we know, an investor expects a higher return for investing in a higher risk asset. Coupon Rate of a bond is determined after considering various factors, but two of the key factors are interest rates of different fixed income security available in market at the time of issue of bond and creditworthiness of the company. The coupon rate of a bond is determined in a manner so that it remains competitive with other available fixed income securities.

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However, the coupon rate of newly issued fixed income securities may increase or decrease during the tenure of a bond based on market conditions, which results in the change in the market value of a bond. Market Value of a bond is a derivation of difference in coupon rate of bond and market interest rate of other fixed income securities.

The par value is denoted by F. Step 2: Now, the coupon rate, which is analogous to interest rate, of the bond and the frequency of the coupon payment is determined. The coupon payment during a period is calculated by multiplying coupon rate and the par value and then dividing the result by the frequency of the coupon payments in a year. The coupon payment is denoted by C.

Step 3: Now, the total number of periods till maturity is computed by multiplying the number of years till maturity and the frequency of the coupon payments in a year. The number of periods till maturity is denoted by n.

## Bond valuation - Wikipedia

Step 4: Now, the yield to maturity YTM is the discounting factor and it is determined based on the current market return from an investment with similar risk profile. The YTM is denoted by r.

Step 5: Now, the present value of the first, second, third coupon payment and so on so forth along with the present value of the par value to be redeemed after n periods is derived as,. Step 6: Finally, adding together the present value of all the coupon payments and the par value gives the bond price as below,. Below are some of the Examples of Bond Pricing Formula. Let us take an example of a bond with annual coupon payments. Since the coupon rate is lower than the YTM , the bond price is less than the face value and as such the bond is said to be traded at discount.

The formula would be shown as.

## Bond Price

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